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Korcula Croatia

Korcula Croatia (Known places)

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Korčula (Italian Curzola, Latin Corcyra Nigra, Greek Corcyra Melaina, Old Slavonic (Church Slavonic) Krkar) is an island in the Adriatic coast of Croatia. The island has an area of 276 km ² - with a length of 46.8 km and an average width of 7.8 km - and is just off the coast of Dalmatia. The population of the island was 16 138 in 2001 , making it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk. The largest city on the island also called Korcula. There is an old fortress on the east coast of the island, with a population of 5 889 (2001).


The island of Korčula belongs to the central Dalmatian archipelago, and between the island and the peninsula is Pelješac Pelješacsundet, which is between 900 and 3 000 meters wide. Korčula is the sixth largest island in the Adriatic, the other five are also in the Croatian part.

The highest peaks on the island is Klupca (568 m) and Kom (510 m). The climate is mild with an average temperature in January is 9.8 º C and in July 26.9 ° C. On average there are about 1 100 mm of rainfall annually. The island is largely covered with Mediterranean flora including extensive pine forests.

Town Korcula is the island's largest, and the only one who has the administrative status of town (Croatian: degree). The two largest villages are Vela Luka and Blato. Along the coast we find besides the villages and Lumbarda Račišċe, and in the inner area Zrnovo, Pupnat, Smokvica and Čara. The island is administratively divided into the town of Korcula and the municipalities Vela Luka, Smokvica, Blato and Lumbarda.

The main road runs along the middle of the island. Ferries run from Korčula to Orebić the Pelješac peninsula and Drvenik on the mainland (near Makarska). Another ferry route runs between Vela Luka and Split and the island of Lastovo. In summer there are also ferries to Italy.

According to the 2001 census is 96.77% of residents of ethnic Croats.

The local dialect is called korzulot, and is a mixture of čakavisk and vulgar Latin.


The island has a long history. Local tradition says that Antenor, who fled from Troy after the Trojan War, was the founder of the town of Korcula. More certain is that there are many historical relics from the Stone Age, around 6000 to 8000 years ago, on the island.

The first inhabitants historske sources mention the tribes of Illyrians. On the 300-century BC founded the Greeks from Knidos colonies here, and lived side by side with illyrne. The first known name of the island Corcyra Melaina, which means 'Black Corfu'. The name "black" may have come from the dark pine forests that covered much of the island.

Korčula was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia until the migration period. Early in the 600's led an invasion of the Avars from the areas around the Danube Slavs to the area. When these "barbarians" began to settle along the coast, searched the Latin population in the area of refuge on the islands.

The first time the city on the island mentioned in writing in the paper Administrando Imperio by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos from the mid 900's. The area was feared by traders because of widespread piracy activities, and the first Venetian merchants paid annual taxes to the people of Korcula for the free pass. In 925 the island was, like the rest of Dalmatia, a part of Croatia under King Tomislav I, but all in 927 domination over the island went on to Prince Caslav Klonimirović. He ruled the island 960. After this, the island was briefly under the Byzantine Empire, as part of Serbia. In 998 came under Venetian rule, but was soon a part of the principality Zahumlje.

In the 1100s was Korčula was conquered by the Venetian nobleman Pepone Zorzi, and for a period of time incorporated in the Republic of Venice. 10. August 1184, the west coast of the island and sacked by Miroslav Stracimir, brother of Stefan Nemanja of fast. Islanders turned to the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) to get help, and naval forces from Ragusa hijacked all the galleys to Stracimir.

Under changing rulers had Korčula still a certain degree of autonomy, especially when it came to internal affairs. Act of Korčula was designed in 1214 and is the second oldest example of legislation of Slavs, just Russkaya Pravda from 1000 - and 1100-century in central Russia are older. This law guaranteed the island's independence in relation to the rulers from the outside, and Zahumlje Raška principalities and republics of Venice and Ragusa.

In 1255 Marsilio Zorzi conquered again the island of Venice. According to a local tradition, Marco Polo was born in Korcula in 1254, but there is no evidence of this. It is known that Marco Polo was in a genoansk prison and wrote about their journeys. Again, according to local tradition it was when Venice beat Genoa in the Battle of Curzola in 1298 that Marco Polo was taken prisoner. Others believe, however, that he was captured during a battle near Ajazzo less in Turkey. The people of Korcula is an annual festival to commemorate the battle, where the figure Marco Polo plays a central role.

Korčula became a part of the Kingdom of Hungary after Zadaravtalen in 1358, but was given to the first Bosnian Serb King Stefan Tvrtko In the summer of 1390 Hungary was, however, regained control of the island, to the Emperor Sigismund, king of Hungary and Croatia, in 1396 gave it to Đurađ II of Zeta. In 1409 it was again under Venetian control, was then bought by neighboring Republic of Ragusa and operated from there 1413-1417, before it once again declared itself as part of the republic of Venice in 1420

In 1529 the population fell in the town of Korcula when it was hit by a plague. It is still possible to see remains of houses were burnt after the house sick during the plague.




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