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Nissan Skyline


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Nissan Skyline (Cars)
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Information about Nissan Skyline

The Nissan Skyline is a mid-size car originally produced by the Japanese carmaker Prince Motor Company starting in 1957 (60 years ago) and later by Nissan after the two companies merged in 1966 (51 years ago). It is available in either coup, or sedan or wagon body styles. The current Skyline is sold in North America, South Korea, Taiwan, and the Middle East as the Infiniti G37.

ALSI-1

The first Skyline was introduced in Apr. 1957 (60 years ago), under the Prince marque, and was marketed as a luxury car. It featured a 1.5 L (1482 cc) GA-30 engine producing 44 kW (60 hp) @ 4,400 rpm. It used a de Dion tube rear suspension and was capable of 140 km/h (87 mph). The car weighed around 1300 (717 years ago) kg. Prince Skylines were produced as four door sedans and five door station wagons.

The Skyline also spawned a pickup truck called the Prince Miler and a delivery van called the Prince Skyway.

ALSI-2

The Skyline was updated with quad headlights for 1958 (59 years ago).

This model was powered by a slightly altered 1.5 L engine known as the GA-4 OHV (1484 cc) producing about 70 hp (52 kW) @ 4800 rpm and was produced through 1961 (56 years ago).

BLRA-3

The Skyline Sport featured hand-built Michelotti bodies in stylish coupe and convertible versions. These cars used the 1.9 L (1862 cc/113 in) GB-30 engine, producing 96 hp (72 kW) and 113.5 ftlbf (154 N m). While only a few hundred were built, Prince Motors had a very aggressive product placement group and they can be seen (along the company's mainstream models) in many Toho movies of the early 1960 (57 years ago).

C10

The C10 series of 1968 (49 years ago), which began its development under Prince at the company's Opama R&D centre in the suburbs of Tokyo, was marketed with a Nissan badge. By the time the C10 went on sale, the Prince nameplate had been completely phased out on cars and trucks. The dealer network selling the cars became the Prince channel of Nissan, and the marketing group stayed at the Prince headquarters in Mita instead of moving to Nissan's headquarters in Ginza. The C10 Skyline was launched with Nissan's 1.5 L OHC G15 I4 like the S57. A 1.8 L G18 version was also available.

A station wagon variant, known previously as the Prince Skyway, was offered with this generation. A hardtop coup was introduced in 1970 (47 years ago).

2000GT-X

In 1970 (47 years ago), the KGC10 2000GT-X received a 2.0 L (1998 cc) L20 I6 engine. The chassis was already designed to receive a straight six, to avoid the S54 extension problem. 120 hp (78 kW) was available from this new engine.

2000GT

The following year, the GC10 2000GT received a 2.0 L (1998 cc) L20 I6 engine. The chassis was already designed to receive a straight six, to avoid the S54 extension problem. 105 hp (78 kW) was available from this new engine.

GT-R

The first GT-R Skyline appeared in Feb. 1969 (48 years ago). Called the PGC-10 (KPGC-10 for later coup version) internally and Hakosuka (ハコスカ) by fans. Hako (ハコ) means Box in Japanese, and suka(スカ) is short for Skyline (スカイライン; Sukairain). It used the 2.0 L (1998 cc) S20 I6. This new DOHC engine produced 160 hp (118 kW, 180 N m), equal to the best sports cars of the time, and was similar to the GR8 engine used in the Nissan R380 racing car.

The GT-R began as a sedan, but a 2-door coup version was introduced in Mar. 1971 (46 years ago). The cars were stripped of unnecessary equipment to be as light as possible for racing, and performed well at the track. The sedan racked up 33 victories in less than two years, and the coup stretched this to 50 through 1972 (45 years ago).

The C10 raced against many cars including the Toyota 1600 (417 years ago) GT5, Isuzu Bellett GTR, Mazda Familia (R100) & Capella (RX-2) - even Porsche. In late 1971 (46 years ago) the new Mazda RX-3 became the GT-R's main rival. The GT-R managed a few more victories before the RX-3 ended the GT-R's winning streak.

It is claimed that the art of drifting began among Japanese racers when they purposely engaged their hand brakes as a way to oversteer on their GT-Rs. One such driver who is famous for this was Kunimitsu Takahashi.

C110

The C110 generation was produced from 1972 (45 years ago) through 1977 (40 years ago).

For export in the 1970s, the C110 and GC110 Skyline was sold as the Datsun K-series, with models such as the Datsun 160K, 180K and Datsun 240K.

The body styles were, once again, four-door sedan, two-door hardtop coup, and five-door station wagon. The C110 was more fussy in its styling than its predecessor, particularly so in wagon form, where unusually for a wagon design, no windows were fitted between the C and D pillars. The C110 was the first version to feature the round rear lights, typical of later Skyline designs.

The C110 Skyline was better known as the "Ken & Mary" or "Kenmeri" (ケンメリ) Skyline, stemming from the advertisement campaign in Japan at the time which featured a young couple (Ken and Mary) who relaxed and enjoyed the countryside in Ken and Mary's Skyline (ケンとメリーのスカイライン). The ads were highly successful and perhaps as a result the C110 was sold in very large numbers in Japan. It sold just as well in Australia (in a 2.4L 6-cylinder form, badged as "Datsun 240K") , though few survive today. There, the 240K was about the same price as a Ford Falcon GT or BMW 5 series, around $5000.

GT-R

The Nissan Skyline GT-R hardtop arrived in sep. 1972 (45 years ago) but only lasted until Mar. 1973 (44 years ago), when Nissan ceased its production. The oil crisis saw many people preferring economy cars and high-performance sports cars were looked down upon. Nissan pulled out of Motor Racing, so there was no purpose to the GT-R. It was not officially exported anywhere, although Nissan contemplated exporting to Australia. Only 197 KPGC110 GT-Rs were ever sold in Japan, through specialist Nissan Performance shops (before it was called NISMO). This was the last GT-R for 16 years until the BNR32 in 1989 (28 years ago).

Models:
1600GT - 1.6 L G16 I4
1800GT - 1.8 L G18 I4
2000GT-X - 2.0 L L20E I6, 130 hp (96 kW, 172 N m)
2000GT-R - 2.0 L S20 I6, 160 hp (118 kW, 180 N m)

C210

The succeeding C210/211 and GC210/211 of 1977 (40 years ago) continued to split the Skyline range into basic and six-cylinder models, the latter with a longer front end. This line continued through 1981 (36 years ago). The Datsun C211 240K/280K and 240C/280C variants continued for export.

A rare variant would be the wagon version, which had a unique styling treatment behind the rear doors, of a much smaller window than usual between the C and D pillars.

The GT-EX replaced the GT-R with a turbocharged engine, the L20ET. This was the first turbo engine to power a Japanese production vehicle. One notable aspect of the turbo versions was that they were not intercooled and there was no form of blowoff valve, only an emergency pressure release valve.

The "T" designation on the L16T and L18T does not signify a turbocharger was included; it denotes that those engines came with twin carburetors.

Models:
1600TI - 1.6 L L16T I4, 95 hp (71 kW, 132 N m)
1800TI - 1.8 L L18T I4, 115 hp (86 kW, 152 N m)
2000GT-EL - 2.0 L L20E I6, 130 hp (97 kW, 167 N m)
2000GT-EX - 2.0 L L20ET turbo I6, 145 hp (108 kW, 206 N m)

R30

The names were brought into line with the home Japanese and worldwide markets with the launch of the R30 series in Aug. 1981 (36 years ago), which was built on a C31 Laurel platform. Unlike preceding generations, four and six-cylinder versions now shared a front end of the same length. The R30 was available as a two door hardtop coupe, a four door sedan, a five door hatchback (available only in the R30 generation) or a four door station wagon. In all, there were 26 variations of the R30 Skyline available.

All versions with the exception of the wagon were usually fitted with the four round tail lights that had become a regular feature to the Skyline's design. The wagon was the ugly duckling of the range, having different tail lights, headlights and no turbo or 6-cylinder versions available - it more closely resembled a Nissan Sunny than a Skyline. The two door coupe had pillarless doors and the unusual feature of roll-down quarter windows for the rear seat passengers (a styling feature of the previous C10, C110 and C211 coupes), while four door versions all had traditional framed windows.

Notably, configurations of the R30 sold in Australia and New Zealand were missing the traditional hotplate tail lights, instead opting for more conventional styling.

Various engine configurations were available, initially ranging from the top of the line 103 kW SOHC 6-cylinder turbo L20ET to the 4-cylinder Z18S and 6-cylinder RD28 diesel versions at the other end of the scale. The all-new 16-valve DOHC FJ20 engine debuted in late 1981 (36 years ago), and was the first 4-cylinder engine by any Japanese manufacturer to employ more than two valves per cylinder (see below). Some of the top spec models featured adjustable suspension dampers that could be adjusted while driving, this was another first for mass produced JDM vehicles. Nissan Glorias and Laurels also used the L series engines as well as some diesel (Laurel only) variants.

The R30 range was facelifted in Aug. 1983 (34 years ago) with various changes across the board; for example four wheel disc brakes were now standard issue, instead of being optional for lower-spec models. Trim specifications were revised and the 4-cylinder Z18S engine was replaced with the newer CA18E. Upgraded interior trim, new front and rear bumpers, door-mounted wing mirrors (replacing the old 'hockey stick' fender mirrors) and smoked tail lights rounded out the look.

Paul Newman Version

Also that year the Paul Newman Version R30 was released to commemorate the association between Nissan and the actor Paul Newman, who used to appear in promotional material as well as race for the company in the late 1970 (47 years ago) - early 1980 (37 years ago). The Newman Skyline was simply a top spec GT-ES turbo with signature embroidery and decals, and is still sought after today amongst collectors in Japan.

RS

Although making about the same power as the L20ET-powered GT-ES models, the version of the Skyline initially known as the 2000RS was released in Oct. 1981 (36 years ago) as more of a stripped-down lightweight racer, without as many luxury extras included (quoted curb weight was only 1130 (887 years ago) kg). These were equipped with the naturally aspirated 4-valve per cylinder DOHC FJ20E engine generating 110 kW of power at 6000 rpm and 181 Nm of torque at 4800 rpm. The official Nissan chassis designation for all FJ20-powered models was DR30.

In Feb. 1983 (34 years ago) the DR30 range received a significant boost in performance with the introduction of the turbocharged FJ20ET engine in the 2000RS Turbo. Front brakes were also significantly upgraded to cope with the power increase. Now with 140 kW of power at 6400 rpm and 225 Nm of torque at 4800 rpm on tap, the FJ20ET enjoyed new-found prestige as the most powerful Japanese production engine of its era.

Nissan sought to elevate the status of the DR30 Skyline as their new flagship model in light of this success, and it received a generous amount of changes to distinguish it from lesser Skyline models in Aug. 1983 (34 years ago). Interior equipment was significantly upgraded to now include electric windows, air conditioning and power steering as standard; gone were the days of the spartan, stripped-out race interior with the increased curb weight of around 1250 (767 years ago) kg. But by far the most striking change to the RS was the new unique front end treatment, nicknamed Tekamen (鉄仮面) or Iron Mask by fans for its distinctive look. The headlights were considerably slimmer, and instead of a conventional grille the bonnet now sloped down to two narrow slits above a facelifted front bumper and airdam. Turbocharged FJ20ET models were renamed RS-X Turbo while the N/A FJ20E model retained the RS moniker. The 2000 (17 years ago) prefix was dropped.

Further changes were made in 1984 (33 years ago), most notably the addition of an intercooler, revised compression ratios and turbocharger exhaust housing to the FJ20ET powered model, now known as the RS-X Turbo C and increasing output to 151 kW of power at 6400 rpm and 245 Nm of torque at 4400 rpm.

FJ20ET Engine
DR30 RS-TurboTo this day the FJ20-powered R30 Skyline remains a cult car both at home and overseas (there are still dedicated "one make" drag racing events for this model in Japan), and is credited with rejuvenating the Skyline brand in the early 1980 (37 years ago). It also paved the way for the eventual re-introduction of the legendary GT-R badge, markedly absent since the end of C110 Skyline production in 1973 (44 years ago).

The RS achieved moderate success in Australian Touring car racing in the mid-1980s with Nissan winning the 1986 (31 years ago) Australian Manufacturers' Championship and sharing victory in the 1987 (30 years ago) Australian Manufacturers' Championship with BMW.

Models: (Japan)
1800TI - 1.8 L Z18S SOHC I4, 105 hp (77 kW), later models 1.8 L CA18S SOHC I4, 105 hp (77 kW)
2000TI - 2.0 L CA20E SOHC I4
2000TI - 2.0 L Z20E SOHC I4
280D GT - 2.8 L LD28 SOHC I6 Diesel
2000GT and Passage - 2.0 L L20E SOHC I6
2000GT Turbo, Passage and Paul Newman Version - 2.0 L L20ET turbo I6, 140 hp (103 kW, 206 N m)
RS - 2.0 L FJ20E DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW, 181 N m)
RS-X and RS-X Turbo C - 2.0 L FJ20ET DOHC turbo I4, 190 to 205 hp (140 to 151 kW, 225 to 245 N m)

GT-R

The BCNR33 GT-R version also had the same RB26DETT engine that the BNR32 was equipped with, although torque had been improved, due to changes in the turbo compressor aerodynamics, turbo dump pipe, and intercooler. The turbo core changed from a sleeve bearing to a ball bearing, but the turbine itself remained ceramic, except on N1 turbos (steel turbine, sleeve bearing). From the R33 onward, all GT-Rs received Brembo brakes. In 1995 (22 years ago) the GT-R received an improved version of the RB26DETT, the ATTESA-ETS all wheel drive system, and Super HICAS all-wheel steering.

A limited edition model was created in 1996 (21 years ago), called the NISMO 400R, that produced 400 hp (298 kW) from a road-tuned version of Nissan's Le Mans engine. A stronger six speed Getrag gearbox was used.

An R33 GT-R driven by Dirk Schoysman lapped the Nordschleife in less than 8 minutes. Though it was often said to be the first production car to break 8 minutes, the limited run Jaguar XJ220 had already achieved a 7'46" lap. Other manufacturers had caught up since the R32 was released, and the R33 never dominated motorsport to the extent of the R32.

GT-R - 2.6 L RB26DETT DOHC twin-turbo I6, 305 PS (224 kW, 375 N m) (advertised as 280 PS) AWD
GT-R LM - 2.6 L RB26DETT DOHC twin-turbo I6, 305 PS (224 kW) FR
NISMO 400R - 2.8 L RBX-GT2 DOHC twin-turbo I6, 400 PS (294 kW, 478 N m) AWD
4Dr.GT-R Autech.version - 2.6 L RB26DETT DOHC twin-turbo I6, 305 PS (224 kW, 375 N m) (advertised as 280 PS) AWD

R34

In May 1997 (20 years ago), the HR/ER/BNR34 addressed many of the concerns over the change from the R32 to the R33, with more emphasis on sportiness, and marked the introduction of the more fuel-efficient and environmentally-friendly RB25DET NEO engine. The RB20E engine was discontinued in the R34 base model (GT), and the RB20DE, after last being used in the R32 Skyline, was reintroduced in updated NEO guise. The R34 GT powered by the RB20DE NEO, coupled with a 5-speed gearbox, became the most fuel-efficient straight-6 Skyline to date (of any shape). It was not the most fuel-efficient straight-6 of its time though; the 1998 (19 years ago) Toyota Supra had better reported fuel economy. The 5-speed automatic transmission available on some models in the previous two shapes were discontinued. In its place, Nissan produced a 4-speed Tiptronic transmission for all of the automatic versions.

Models:
GT - 2.0 L RB20DE NEO I6, 155 ps (114 kW)
25 GT, GT-X, GT-V - 2.5 L RB25DE NEO I6, 200 ps (147 kW)
GT-FOUR - 2.5 L RB25DE NEO I6, 200 ps (147 kW) AWD
GT-T - 2.5 L RB25DET NEO turbo I6, 280 hp (206 kW, 343 N m)

V35

The 11th generation (V35) Nissan Skyline, introduced in Jun. 2001 (16 years ago), was based on Nissan's FM platform, shared with the Nissan 350Z. The Nissan Skyline used a front-midship engine (VQ35DE), rear-wheel drive layout (all-wheel drive was available for the sedan) to achieve a 52%/48% weight distribution. The V35 was the first Skyline made for export to the United States. There it was sold under the company's luxury brand, Infiniti as the Infiniti G35.

The V35 was a major turning point for the Skyline. There was no straight 6, no turbo, and no GT-R, a decision which extended to all later Skylines. However, despite the departure in these trademark characteristics, Nissan's decision to include a bigger engine and improve balance made many media outlets name the V35 as "the best Skyline ever", and it has continued to revive the Skyline brand internationally . Choosing to gear the V35 towards the luxury-sport market, and billing the 350z as a pure sports car, Nissan put a slightly more powerful VQ35DE in the 350Z, and while the Skyline and the 350Z shared the same platform, the 350Z had additional bracing, underbody aero parts, and weighed 100 kg less.

A Japan-only Skyline with a bizarre 8-speed CVT (Continously Variable) transmission was also sold. It was a sedan model called the 350GT-8. The 8 was for the 8-speed transmission.

Japanese tuners mostly ignored the V35 Skyline, the 2006 (11 years ago) Tsukuba Super Lap Battle had not a single V35 entrant. Tuners such as Mines, Amuse, Hosaka, Garage Defend, M Speed, Nagisa, MCR, HKS, & Top Secret continued developing R32-R34 GT-Rs as time attack cars. Top Secret did tune a V35, but replaced the VQ35DE with a VK45DE V8 Twin Turbo. Signal USA entered a V35 in Formula D, replacing the VQ35DE with an SR20DET.

Models:
250GT - 2.5 L VQ25DD V6, 215 PS (158 kW, 270 N m)
250GT Four - 2.5 L VQ25DD V6, 215 PS (158 kW, 270 Nm) AWD
300GT - 3.0 L VQ30DD V6, 260 PS (191 kW, 324 N m)

V36

The 12th generation Skyline appeared on 20 Nov. 2006 (11 years ago).

It was first available only as a 4-door sedan in Japan and was also sold in the USA as the 2007 (10 years ago) Infiniti G35. It is equipped with either a VQ25HR 2.5 L V6 producing 165 kW or a VQ35HR 3.5 L V6 with 232 kW. The 2.5 L is available as a ALL-wheel drive variant as well.

On May 13, 2008 (9 years ago), Nissan announced that a convertible variant of the Infiniti G37 (U.S Spec Skyline coupe) will be produced for the 2009 (8 years ago) model year.

Models:
250GT - 2.5L VQ25HR V6, 225 PS (222 hp/165 kW), 268 Nm (198 lbft)
250GT FOUR - 2.5L VQ25HR V6, 225 PS (222 hp/165 kW), 268 Nm (198 lbft) AWD
350GT - 3.5L VQ35HR V6, 315 PS (311 hp/232 kW), 365 Nm (269 lbft)
370GT - 3.7L VQ37VHR V6, 333 PS (328 hp/245 kW), 363 Nm (268 lbft)

250GT sedan

Transmission is 5-speed automatic on all model ranges. All wheel drive is standard on 250GT FOUR models.

250GT Type S was introduced in 2008 (9 years ago) model year.

17-inch wheels are standard for all model ranges, except for 250GT Type S, which has 18-inch wheels.

350GT sedan

Transmission is 5-speed automatic on all model ranges. It is a Japanese version of the G35 sedan.

4-wheel active steering is available in Type S and Type SP as option.

370GT coupe

Introduced in 2008 (9 years ago) model year, it is a Japanese version of Infiniti G37 coupe.

Transmission is 5-speed automatic on all model ranges, with 6-speed manual on Type S and Type SP.

18-inch wheels are used on base and 370GT Type P, while Type S and Type SP includes 19-inch wheels.

In 2009 (8 years ago), transmission was changed to 7-speed automatic on all model ranges, with 6-speed manual on Type S and Type SP.

370GT sedan

Introduced in 2009 (8 years ago) model year, it is a Japanese version of Infiniti G37 sedan. It replaced 350GT sedan.

Transmission is 7-speed automatic on all model ranges.

18-inch wheels are standard for all model ranges, except for 370GT Type P, which has 17-inch wheels.

50th Limited

It is an option for 250GT Type P, 350GT Type P, 350GT Type SP, 250GT FOUR Type P, commemorating 50th year of Nissan Skyline. The interior is marked with anniversary red leather seats, and serial numbered front glass. This package went on sale on 2008-03-31.

R35

First introduced in Japan on 24 Oct. 2007 (10 years ago) at the Tokyo Motor Show, the Nissan GT-R R35. Its sticker price of roughly $70,000 MSRP for the base model. First sales started in 2008 (9 years ago) as a 2009 (8 years ago) model. It was revealed at the Tokyo Motor Show, following the leak of the dec. issue of Motor Trend magazine that covered the future release of the model. Styling bears resemblance to the Nissan GT-R Proto and the Infiniti G35, previous Skyline models. The Nissan GT-R is equipped with the new VR38DETT V6 twin-turbo engine with 353 KW.

The new GT-R has also had a big success in Japanese racing series, then as the racing model the GT-R GT500.

Source: en.wikipedia.org


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